Catherine of Poděbrady and her twin sister Sidonie were born on 11 November 1449 at Poděbrady to King of Bohemia George and his first wife Kunigunde of Šternberk. Kunigunde died giving birth to her and her sister. Wedding negotiations began for her when she was just nine years old. She married Matthias Corvinus on 1 May 1463 at the age of 13. She was his second wife. His first wife was Elizabeth of Celje, who died at the age of 14 before the marriage was consummated. Matthias Corvinus was already King of Hungary, and it was stipulated that he would succeed her father as King of Bohemia. Catherine left her family and lived in Hungary with her husband.
Despite her age, she became pregnant very quickly after her wedding. Catherine died giving born to a son on 8 March 1464 in Buda. Her son died soon after the birth. She was buried in St. Sigismund Church in Buda, which is now in ruins.