Lost Kingdoms: Kingdom of Sardinia




(public domain)

The Kingdom of Sardinia began its life in 1324 when King James II of Aragon claimed the territories as the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica. The Kingdom remained separate from the Crown of Aragon.

House of Barcelona

James II was married four times but as his first marriage to Isabella of Castile had been annulled, it was his second wife Blanche of Anjou who was the first Queen of Sardinia. They had eleven children together, and she probably died from complications from the birth of her 11th child. James remarried in 1314 to Marie of Lusignan, who was also the heiress of Cyprus. She died five years later without having had children. He remarried in 1322 to Elisenda of Montcada, but they too had no children. Upon his death in 1317, he was succeeded by his son, now King Alfonso IV, in all his territories.

Alfonso had married heiress Teresa d’Entença in 1314. They had seven children together, though not all lived to adulthood. She died in childbirth just days before Alfonso succeeded as King. In 1329, he remarried to Eleanor of Castile and had two further children by her. Alfonso died at the age of 36 and was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, now Peter IV.

In 1338, Peter married Maria of Navarre and had two surviving children by her. She died in childbirth and Peter remarried 1347 to Eleanor of Portugal (1328 -1348), but she died just one year later of the plague. In 1349, he remarried to Eleanor of Sicily and had three surviving children by her. Upon her death in 1375, he remarried for a fourth time to Sibila of Fortia in 1377. They had one surviving daughter. Upon his own death in 1387, he was succeeded by his son from his second marriage, now King John I.

John had married Martha of Armagnac on 24 June 1373, and they had five children together, though only one daughter would live to adulthood. Martha died in childbirth in 1378. On 2 February 1380, he remarried to Yolande of Bar. They had six children together, though only one daughter would live to adulthood. Upon John’s death without sons, the throne passed to his younger brother, now King Martin I. His daughters did try to claim the throne, but neither was successful.

Eleanor of Alburquerque (public domain)

Martin had married Maria de Luna on 13 June 1373, and they had one surviving son. In 1409, he remarried to Margaret of Prades, but they had no children together. His only surviving son died in 1409, and upon Martin’s death, the rule of the House of Barcelona came to an end. In 1412, his nephew was chosen as King Ferdinand I.

House of Trastámara

Ferdinand had married Eleanor of Alburquerque in 1393, and they would have seven children together. Ferdinand’s reign lasted just four years, and upon his death in 1416, he was succeeded by his eldest son, now King Alfonso V.

Alfonso had married Maria of Castile in 1415, but they had no children together. He did have three children with a mistress. In 1421, the childless Queen Joanna II of Naples adopted and named him as heir to the Kingdom of Naples. She subsequently named someone else as her heir, but he eventually succeeded as King of Naples in 1442. He managed to obtain papal consent to leave the Kingdom of Naples to his illegitimate son, who became King Ferdinand I of Naples. The other kingdoms, including Sardinia and Corsica, went to his younger brother, now King John II, in 1458.

John had married the future Queen Blanche I of Navarre on 6 November 1419, and he had three surviving children by her. Blanche died in 1441 and John remarried to Juana Enríquez in 1458, and they had two children together. He kept control of the Kingdom of Navarre for his lifetime to the agitation of his and Blanche’s eldest son and heir Charles. Navarre eventually passed to their eldest daughter and then to their youngest daughter after Charles’s death. John was succeeded in his own territories by his eldest son from his second marriage, now King Ferdinand II.

Joanna of Castile (public domain)

Ferdinand had married the future Queen Isabella I of Castile and they would have one son, who died in his teens, and four daughters. After their son’s death, it was unclear who would succeed Ferdinand as female succession was not quite as accepted as it was in Castile. Their eldest daughter died giving birth to a son who could possibly succeed, but he died young. Their second daughter married Archduke Philip of Austria and had six children together. She succeeded her mother in Castile upon Isabella’s death in 1504. Ferdinand was determined to keep their kingdoms separate and remarried to Germaine of Foix hoping to father a son. They had a son, but he died shortly after birth. When Ferdinand died in 1516, Philip was long dead, and he named Joanna and her son Charles as his co-heirs. By then Joanna was confined due to her supposed insanity.

House of Habsburg

Charles not only inherited his mother’s territories but also his father’s. In addition, he was elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1519. He married Isabella of Portugal in 1526, and they had three surviving children together. Isabella died in 1539 after giving birth to a stillborn son. Charles never remarried. Charles abdicated in 1556 and was succeeded by his son, now King Philip II.

Philip married four times. His first marriage was to his first cousin, Maria Manuela of Portugal, and they had one son together. Maria Manuela died shortly after childbirth. In 1554, he married his first cousin once removed, Queen Mary I of England but she died in 1558 without having had children. In 1559, he married Elisabeth of Valois, and they had two surviving daughters together. She miscarried in 1568 and died shortly after. In 1570, he married his niece Anna of Austria, and they had one surviving son. Upon Philip’s death in 1598, he was succeeded by his son, now King Philip III.

Philip married his first cousin once removed Margaret of Austria in 1499. They had eight children together, though not all would live to adulthood. Margaret died shortly after the birth of her eighth child, a boy who died before his first birthday. Upon Philip’s death in 1621, he was succeeded by his eldest son, now King Philip IV.

Philip married Elisabeth of France in 1615, and they had eight children together. Of their eight children, six died young, and his only son died at the age of 16. Elisabeth died in 1644 and Philip remarried to his niece Mariana of Austria. They went on to have five children, of which two surviving to adulthood. Upon his death in 1665, he was succeeded by his only son, now King Charles II.

Charles was mentally and physically disabled due to the many generations of inbreeding. Despite marrying twice, to Marie Louise d’Orléans and Maria Anna of Neuburg, he fathered no children, leading to a succession crisis. He was succeeded by King Philip V, who was the younger grandson of Maria Theresa of Spain, the only surviving child of Philip IV and Elisabeth of France.

House of Bourbon

Philip married his double second cousin Maria Luisa of Savoy on 2 November 1701, and they had two surviving sons. After her death in 1714, he remarried to Elisabeth Farnese and had a further six children by her. Not everyone agreed that Philip should succeed and the War of the Spanish Succession eventually saw the separation of Sardinia from the other territories. Sardinia was overtaken by Habsburg troops in 1708, and between 1714 and 1720, Emperor Charles VI was also King of Sardinia. The Kingdom was invaded by Spanish forces in 1717 and under occupation until 1720 when it was given back to the Emperor. By the Treaty of The Hague, it was ceded to the Duke of Savoy.

House of Savoy

The Duke of Savoy became King Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia on 17 February 1720. He had married Anne Marie d’Orléans on 6 May 1684, and they had four surviving children. Anne Marie died in 1728 and Victor Amadeus II contracted a morganatic marriage with Anna Canalis di Cumiana in 1730. The next month, he also decided to abdicate in favour of his eldest surviving son, now King Charles Emmanuel III.

Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg (public domain)

Charles Emmanuel III married three times. His first wife was Anne Christine of Sulzbach, but she died after a year marriage shortly after giving birth to a son who also died young. In 1724, he remarried to Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg, and they had six children together, though not all lived to adulthood. She died in 1735, still only 28 years old. In 1737, he remarried to Elisabeth Therese of Lorraine, and they had one surviving son together. Elisabeth Therese followed the fate of her two predecessors and died before her 30th birthday in childbirth. Upon his death in 1773, Charles Emmanuel III was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, now King Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia.

Victor Amadeus III had married Maria Antonietta of Spain, a daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese, on 31 May 1750. They went on to have twelve children together, though not all lived to adulthood. Upon his death in 1796, he was succeeded by his eldest son, now King Charles Emmanuel IV.

Charles Emmanuel IV had married Marie Clotilde of France in 1775, but they had no children together. When Marie Clothilde died in 1802, Charles Emmanuel IV decided to abdicate in favour of his younger brother, who became King Victor Emmanuel I. By then, Sardinia was faced with French occupation. Victor Emmanuel took little interest in Sardinia until his brother’s abdication. On 21 April 1789, he had married Archduchess Maria Teresa of Austria-Este, and they had four surviving daughters. Victor Emmanuel abolished all freedoms granted under the French occupation, which led to rebellions. He did not wish to institute a liberal constitution and decided to abdicate in favour of his younger brother, now King Charles Felix.

Adelaide of Austria (public domain)

Charles Felix had married Maria Cristina of Naples and Sicily in 1807, but the couple had no children. A new King did not mean the stop of the rebellions and instead led to even more chaos. Calm eventually returned to the Kingdom, and Charles Felix reigned for ten years. Upon his death in 1831, he was succeeded by a distant cousin, now King Charles Albert.

Charles Albert had married Maria Theresa of Austria in 1817, and they had two surviving sons. Upon his death in 1849, he was succeeded by his eldest son, now King Victor Emmanuel II. Victor Emmanuel II had married Adelaide of Austria in 1842 with whom he had eight children, though not all lived to adulthood. Adelaide died in 1855 shortly after giving birth to a son, who died in infancy.

In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II became the King of a united Italy, making Adelaide the last Queen of Sardinia.






About Moniek 1269 Articles
My name is Moniek and I am from the Netherlands. I began this website in 2013 because I wanted to share these women's amazing stories.

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