Victoria Kinoiki Kekaulike was born on 12 May 1843 as the youngest daughter of High Chief Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole of Hilo and Princess Kinoiki Kekaulike. Her elder sisters were Queen Kapiolani of Hawaii and Virginia Kapoʻoloku Poʻomaikelani.
On 25 February 1861, Kekaulike married High Chief David Kahalepouli Piʻikoi. They went on to have three sons together: David Kahalepouli Kawānanakoa (born 19 February 1868), Edward Abnel Keliʻiahonui (born 13 May 1869) and Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole (born 26 March 1871). When her sister’s husband became King of Hawaii in 1874, Kekaulike was granted the title of Princess with the style of Her Royal Highness. Her sons were made Princes with the style of His Royal Highness. She played a role in her brother-in-law’s coronation ceremony, and she carried the royal feather cape, which she handed to Chief Justice Albert Francis Judd who then places it on her brother-in-law’s shoulders.
Kekaulike was widowed on 18 October 1878. Kekaulike also served as Governor of Hawaii Island from 1880 until her death in 1884, succeeding Princess Miriam Likelike. Kekaulike fell ill a year after the coronation with what was believed to be a heart disease. She died on 8 January 1884 at her residence in Honolulu – still only 40 years old. She was interred in the Royal Mausoleum of Hawaii. Two of her sons were adopted by her sister the Queen, while her middle son was adopted by her sister Poomaikelani. The three princes were sent to a military school in California a year after her funeral.